Module reference

Nest provides the ModuleRef class to navigate the internal list of providers and obtain a reference to any provider using its injection token as a lookup key. The ModuleRef class also provides a way to dynamically instantiate both static and scoped providers. ModuleRef can be injected into a class in the normal way:

@@filename(cats.service)
@Injectable()
export class CatsService {
constructor(private moduleRef: ModuleRef) {}
}
@@switch
@Injectable()
@Dependencies(ModuleRef)
export class CatsService {
constructor(moduleRef) {
this.moduleRef = moduleRef;
}
}

info Hint The ModuleRef class is imported from the @nestjs/core package.

Retrieving instances

The ModuleRef instance (hereafter we'll refer to it as the module reference) has a get() method. This method retrieves a provider, controller, or injectable (e.g., guard, interceptor, etc.) that exists (has been instantiated) in the current module using its injection token/class name.

@@filename(cats.service)
@Injectable()
export class CatsService implements OnModuleInit {
private service: Service;
constructor(private moduleRef: ModuleRef) {}
onModuleInit() {
this.service = this.moduleRef.get(Service);
}
}
@@switch
@Injectable()
@Dependencies(ModuleRef)
export class CatsService {
constructor(moduleRef) {
this.moduleRef = moduleRef;
}
onModuleInit() {
this.service = this.moduleRef.get(Service);
}
}

warning Warning You can't retrieve scoped providers (transient or request-scoped) with the get() method. Instead, use the technique described below. Learn how to control scopes here.

To retrieve a provider from the global context (for example, if the provider has been injected in a different module), pass the {{ '{' }} strict: false {{ '}' }} option as a second argument to get().

this.moduleRef.get(Service, { strict: false });

Resolving scoped providers

To dynamically resolve a scoped provider (transient or request-scoped), use the resolve() method, passing the provider's injection token as an argument.

@@filename(cats.service)
@Injectable()
export class CatsService implements OnModuleInit {
private transientService: TransientService;
constructor(private moduleRef: ModuleRef) {}
async onModuleInit() {
this.transientService = await this.moduleRef.resolve(TransientService);
}
}
@@switch
@Injectable()
@Dependencies(ModuleRef)
export class CatsService {
constructor(moduleRef) {
this.moduleRef = moduleRef;
}
async onModuleInit() {
this.transientService = await this.moduleRef.resolve(TransientService);
}
}

The resolve() method returns a unique instance of the provider, from its own DI container sub-tree. Each sub-tree has a unique context identifier. Thus, if you call this method more than once and compare instance references, you will see that they are not equal.

@@filename(cats.service)
@Injectable()
export class CatsService implements OnModuleInit {
constructor(private moduleRef: ModuleRef) {}
async onModuleInit() {
const transientServices = await Promise.all([
this.moduleRef.resolve(TransientService),
this.moduleRef.resolve(TransientService),
]);
console.log(transientServices[0] === transientServices[1]); // false
}
}
@@switch
@Injectable()
@Dependencies(ModuleRef)
export class CatsService {
constructor(moduleRef) {
this.moduleRef = moduleRef;
}
async onModuleInit() {
const transientServices = await Promise.all([
this.moduleRef.resolve(TransientService),
this.moduleRef.resolve(TransientService),
]);
console.log(transientServices[0] === transientServices[1]); // false
}
}

To generate a single instance across multiple resolve() calls, and ensure they share the same generated DI container sub-tree, you can pass a context identifier to the resolve() method. Use the ContextIdFactory class to generate a context identifier. This class provides a create() method that returns an appropriate unique identifier.

@@filename(cats.service)
@Injectable()
export class CatsService implements OnModuleInit {
constructor(private moduleRef: ModuleRef) {}
async onModuleInit() {
const contextId = ContextIdFactory.create();
const transientServices = await Promise.all([
this.moduleRef.resolve(TransientService, contextId),
this.moduleRef.resolve(TransientService, contextId),
]);
console.log(transientServices[0] === transientServices[1]); // true
}
}
@@switch
@Injectable()
@Dependencies(ModuleRef)
export class CatsService {
constructor(moduleRef) {
this.moduleRef = moduleRef;
}
async onModuleInit() {
const contextId = ContextIdFactory.create();
const transientServices = await Promise.all([
this.moduleRef.resolve(TransientService, contextId),
this.moduleRef.resolve(TransientService, contextId),
]);
console.log(transientServices[0] === transientServices[1]); // true
}
}

info Hint The ContextIdFactory class is imported from the @nestjs/core package.

Registering REQUEST provider

Manually generated context identifiers (with ContextIdFactory.create()) represent DI sub-trees in which REQUEST provider is undefined as they are not instantiated and managed by the Nest dependency injection system.

To register a custom REQUEST object for a manually created DI sub-tree, use the ModuleRef#registerRequestByContextId() method, as follows:

const contextId = ContextIdFactory.create();
this.moduleRef.registerRequestByContextId(/* YOUR_REQUEST_OBJECT */, contextId);

Getting current sub-tree

Occasionally, you may want to resolve an instance of a request-scoped provider within a request context. Let's say that CatsService is request-scoped and you want to resolve the CatsRepository instance which is also marked as a request-scoped provider. In order to share the same DI container sub-tree, you must obtain the current context identifier instead of generating a new one (e.g., with the ContextIdFactory.create() function, as shown above). To obtain the current context identifier, start by injecting the request object using @Inject() decorator.

@@filename(cats.service)
@Injectable()
export class CatsService {
constructor(
@Inject(REQUEST) private request: Record<string, unknown>,
) {}
}
@@switch
@Injectable()
@Dependencies(REQUEST)
export class CatsService {
constructor(request) {
this.request = request;
}
}

info Hint Learn more about the request provider here.

Now, use the getByRequest() method of the ContextIdFactory class to create a context id based on the request object, and pass this to the resolve() call:

const contextId = ContextIdFactory.getByRequest(this.request);
const catsRepository = await this.moduleRef.resolve(CatsRepository, contextId);

Instantiating custom classes dynamically

To dynamically instantiate a class that wasn't previously registered as a provider, use the module reference's create() method.

@@filename(cats.service)
@Injectable()
export class CatsService implements OnModuleInit {
private catsFactory: CatsFactory;
constructor(private moduleRef: ModuleRef) {}
async onModuleInit() {
this.catsFactory = await this.moduleRef.create(CatsFactory);
}
}
@@switch
@Injectable()
@Dependencies(ModuleRef)
export class CatsService {
constructor(moduleRef) {
this.moduleRef = moduleRef;
}
async onModuleInit() {
this.catsFactory = await this.moduleRef.create(CatsFactory);
}
}

This technique enables you to conditionally instantiate different classes outside of the framework container.